modern-slavery: Charcoal works at Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Mid-west Brazil. A variety of health problems and diseases are associated with the charcoal production, especially because workers do not use protective gear, like masks, boots or gloves. Pneumonia ranks high among workers because of sharp variations of temperature inside and outside the brick ovens that turn wood into charcoal. Several pig-iron smelters have been set up in the country to process iron for export, mainly to the European Community. These rely on charcoal production, specially from native woods, to fuel them. Studies indicate that to produce the projected 2.8 million tons of pig-iron a year, these smelters would need 2.3 million tons of charcoal a year; this would entail cutting down every year 100,000 hectares of forest.